The metal detector measures the small change in the sensor's transfer function with a lock-in amplifier.
The corrected DC current of the lock-in amplifier is equal to the DC current flowing through it. The current can be measured by measuring the output of the lock-in amplifier.
Methods for measuring electrons emitted from the surface of a sample include Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and so on.
In the laser phase-locked system, the most crucial part is the use of lock-in amplifier to achieve the test gas, reference gas two-way detection, or even to achieve the measured gas, reference gas and laser background three-way detection.
Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) is an analytical instrument with a mechanism similar to that of a secondary quantum optical spectrometer.
Spectral measurement system built by a lock-in amplifier and a chopper, only measures the light intensity with a modulated frequency, so as to avoid the influence of other external noise, which can achieve the detection of low light with high precision.
The light from the beam splitter is converted into an electrical signal by the sensor. The sample beam and the reference beam are analyzed by two lock-in amplifiers with respective cut-off frequencies as reference frequencies, and the ratio of the two beams is calculated by the comparator.